While international adoption represents almost 80% of all adoptions in Quebec, it is still possible to adopt in Quebec. To do this, you need to be patient and have a few tools.
Types of adoption
- Special adoption is adoption by a member of the child's family of origin or by the spouse of one of the parents. In the latter case, if you are neither married nor in a civil union with your spouse, you must have been cohabiting with him for at least three years.
- Regular adoption is the adoption of a child placed for adoption.
- Foster adoption occurs when a family, who has custody of a child as a foster family, adopts the child.
All potential adoptive parents undergo a psychosocial assessment which is essentially the same process as in international adoption. Evaluations in cases of internal adoption are carried out free of charge by the psychosocial workers of the Youth Centres. This is a procedure during which the Center jeunesse's adoption service will assess whether your household isacceptable to accommodate a child. You will be met several times, including at your home, and you will be asked dozens of questions. You will also be asked to submit documents.
Who to contact
The Centres Jeunesse du Québec, under the Ministry of He alth and Social Services, are responsible for internal adoption. The Youth Centers operate on the basis of 18 independent regions and it is with the adoption service of the Youth Center closest to your home that you must file an application for an internal adoption.
How long can it take?
You have to be patient, very patient! Count between 4 and 6 years of procedures, evaluation and waiting between your registration and the adoption of a child. Approximately 18 months before the child is home and 3 to 4 years to complete the adoption.
In Quebec, you can apply for adoption regardless of whether you are single, married, in a civil union or de facto spouse; the adoption of a child not related by blood as well as the adoption of the child of the spouse is possible for spouses of the same sex or not;
- Adoption must be in the best interests of the child;
- must be at least 18 years old;
- you must be at least 18 years older than the child, unless it is your spouse's child;
Birth parents must give their consent tothe adoption of their minor child, unless they have abandoned him or the court has withdrawn their parental rights after intervention by the Department of Youth Protection. The child must consent to the adoption if he is 10 years of age or older. The court can pronounce the adoption despite the refusal of a child under 14, but the refusal of a child aged 14 and over blocks the adoption.
Fees related to the adoption of a child in Quebec
None. It's free, except maybe for legal document fees and if you hire a lawyer to help you with the legal process, which isn't absolutely necessary.
How many internal adoptions are there in Quebec and Canada?
It is difficult to have exact figures, but we are talking about less than 250 per year. According to figures from Immigration Canada, of the 20,000 Canadian children entrusted to public child welfare services, only 2,000 are placed for adoption annually.
Is it certain that I will have a child?
- There is no absolute guarantee that you will be able to adopt the child entrusted to you;
- it is up to the Court to decide;
- statistically, you have a 9 out of 10 chance that the adoption will be completed eventually. 1 in 10 fails.
This information comes from Québecadoption.net, a private site, and from Éducaloi, a site for popularizing laws that offers all the information without the heavy language of legal texts.